One enemy of software maintainability is the tendency of software engineers to add functionality in the system which does not provide any direct business value or is not part of the requirements. This functionality can be user facing but is often functionality that comes about because the engineer goes through some sort of "what if" scenarios.
For instance if an engineer is writing a piece of software that processes PDF documents they may be tempted to add some hooks that will allow it to process yet to be decided upon documents in the future. Often the reasoning for this is that it provides greater flexibility for the software and you should do that work while you're already in that particular module.
I honestly think that one big reason we see engineers do this is that they're afraid to only provide the business value they're being asked to provide. I believe that often these engineers feel that if they're not building their software to do more than it was originally designed to do that they're not a great developer.
I'm not 100% sure where this mentality came from but my hunch is that it was exasperated in the late 90's and early 2000's when the majority of companies were using the Waterfall design process to build their software. This was due to the fact that a lot of software was being packaged and shipped rather than being distributed as a service.
The waterfall process takes the approach that there is a start and end for a software project and once the end is reached the software design doesn't change. One reason this process fails for software is that requirements are always changing. The more a software product is used the more it's users refine their understanding of how they need to use the software and what they can do with it.
Because software was being packaged and shipped using the waterfall process this promoted the need to get as much functionality into the code as possible in order for the software to be able to provide the unknown functionality to the user. The problem with this is that the software no longer does a few things really well but instead does several things not so well.
Now that we're well into an age in software where even packaged software can be updated automatically online there's really no excuse or reason to hold on to this fallacy. Yet we still see it just as prevalent in today's software industry as it was back in the late 90's and early 2000's.
There's a philosophy that's been created to try to combat this archaic way of thinking which is summed up in the acronym YAGNI (you aren't gonna need it). YAGNI is your permission to build something that does only what it's supposed to do and does it well.
YAGNI is built on the assumption that if you need it you'll know enough about it to build it out fully. You'll have enough information to write some tests to document it's functionality. It'll be valuable to the business which means it will be used and relied on.
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